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One-Photon Absorption-Based Direct Laser Writing of Three- Dimensional Photonic Crystals

Dam Thuy Trang Nguyen, Mai Trang Do, Qinggle Li, Quang Cong Tong, Thi Huong Au and Ngoc Diep Lai, INTECH book chapter, Book " Theoretical Foundations and Application of Photonic Crystals", 133-157 (2018)

A simple and low-cost technique called low one-photon absorption (LOPA) direct laser writing (DLW) is demonstrated as an e cient method for structuration of multidimen- sional submicrostructures. Starting from the di raction theory of the electromagnetic eld distribution of a tightly focused beam, the crucial conditions for LOPA-based DLW are theoretically investigated, and then experimentally demonstrated using a simple optical confocal microscope. Various 1D, 2D, and 3D submicrostructures were successfully fabricated in di erent materials, such as commercial SU8 photoresist and magnetic nanocomposite. The advantages and drawbacks of this LOPA-based DLW technique were also studied and compared with the conventional two-photon absorp- tion based DLW. Several methods were proposed to overcome the existing problem of the DLW, such as the dose accumulation and shrinkage e ect, resulting in uniform structures with a small la ice constant. The LOPA-based DLW technique should be useful for the fabrication of functionalized structures, such as magneto-photonic and plasmon photonic crystals and devices, which could be interesting for numerous applications.

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Acknowledgments
This work is a joint research between the LPQM (ENS Cachan, France), the Institut d'Optique Graduate School (IOGS), and the Institute of Materials Science (IMS, VAST), Vietnam.
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