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Diamonds with a high density of nitrogen-vacancy centers for magnetometry applications

V.M. Acosta, E. Bauch, M.P. Ledbetter, C. Santori, K.-M.C. Fu ,P.E. Barclay, R.G. Beausoleil, H. Linget, J.-F. Roch, F. Treussart, S. Chemerisov, W. Gawlik, and D. Budker, Phys. Rev. B 80, 115202 (2009)

Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in millimeter-scale diamond samples were produced by irradiation and subsequent annealing under varied conditions. The optical and spin-relaxation properties of these samples were characterized using confocal microscopy, visible and infrared absorption, and optically detected magnetic resonance. The sample with the highest NV− concentration, approximately 16 ppm (2.8×10e18 cm−3), was prepared with no observable traces of neutrally charged vacancy defects. The effective transverse spin-relaxation time for this sample was T2∗=118(48) ns, predominately limited by residual paramagnetic nitrogen which was determined to have a concentration of 49(7) ppm. Under ideal conditions, the shot-noise limited sensitivity is projected to be ∼150 fT/√Hz for a 100 μm-scale magnetometer based on this sample. Other samples with NV− concentrations from 0.007 to 12 ppm and effective relaxation times ranging from 27 to over 291 ns were prepared and characterized.

doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.115202

The authors would like to thank B. Patton and S. Rochester for help with modeling and data visualization, T. Sauvage for proton irradiation, and P. Hemmer for extensive comments and suggestions. We also thank V. Bouchiat, C. Hovde, D. Twitchen, and R. Walsworth for providing helpful comments, R. Segalman and J. Sun for providing the Cary 50 spectrometer, and M. Donaldson and W. Vining for help with FTIR measurements. This work was supported by ONR-MURI and the Polish Ministry of Science (grant NN 505 0920 33).

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